What Is Data, Database – A Full Guide

What Is Data, Database And More

No matter what’s your background, all of us must have used the word data at some time or the other. But despite that, many times this question definitely arises in our mind that what is this data, and why is this  considered more important in all places. If you also want to know about the true meaning of data, then I have tried to explain in this article.
What Is Data
What Is Data
By the way, data is not just a term related to a computer, but data is called plain facts. The word ‘data‘ is plural of ‘datum‘. This data can be anything like population of a country, number of patients in hospitals, fixing of a school etc. All these things are not organized or structured in their natural form, so they cannot be used much.
At the same time, if this data is presented by processes, organized, structured, to make them useful in a particular context, then it is called Information. This was just a simple definition of data and information, to know in full details,  You will have to read it completely, so that you will get complete information about it, its type and their usage. So without delay, let’s start:-

What Is Data? 

We can say data in such a way that it is a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner, which is suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or electronic machine.
We can represent data with the help of characters such as alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or any special characters (+, -, /, *, <,>, =) etc. This data can be any character, text, numbers, pictures, sound, or even video. At the same time, if the data is not inserted in any context, then it does not work, whether it is for a human or a computer.
Data is of no use in its raw form. But when we process and interpret the same, then they come to the right meaning, and which are very useful for us. These processed data are also called information.

Analog vs. Digital data

There are two general ways of representing data: analog and digital. Analog datas are often continuous – they are ‘analogous’ to the actual facts that they represent. Digital data is very discrete and they are broken up into limited number of elements. For example, nature is analog, whereas computers are digital.
Our natural world is often continuous in nature. For example, you can see the colors of the rainbow. In this, the rainbow is continuous and provides shades of infinite number. Whereas in computer systems, they are continuous but finite. All the data that you store in binary digits, these limit how many data can be represented.

Types of Data

Computers work with different types of data or digital data. When it was in the earlier days data was numbers and texts only. But now days, in the time of morden computing there are many types of data including multimedia. That includes audio, video, images and graphics as well. But they are stored according to binary digits only.

What is database

We cannot speak much about data without naming the database. Yes, a database is an organized collection of datas. Instead of putting the data in random order in such a list, a structure is provided to them with the help of a database, to organize those data.
A very common structures is database table. This table mainly consists of rows and columns. Each row is typically called a record, while each column is typically called a field.
What is information?
Information is a type of data, that has been completely processed in such a way that it would be very meaningful for the person who receives it. It can be anything that can be communicated.
Where data is called raw facts, while information processed data is called. For example, subject marks, roll number, age, rank, etc. of students of a class can be called data. At the same time, if you are asked to bring the marks of science of the best 5 students out of those students, then you must first categorize all the data of those students and then by processing it you can provide the requested data. Here, the data you get on the basis of results is called information.
Information is very organized and classified data, which has some meaningful values ​​for the receiver. Information is a type of processed datas on which decisions and actions are based.
To make decision meaningful, processed datas must qualify some characteristics, which are
Timely – Information should always be available when they are needed.
Accuracy – Information should always be accurate.
Completeness – Information should always be complete.
If a processed datas has all these characteristics then they are actually called information.

How is datas are stored?

Hard drive or any other storage device is used to store datas and information in a computer.
Data that is stored in computer memory / storage are mainly categorized into two parts.
  1. Permanent storage (Hard disk / Hard drive)
  2. Temporary storage (RAM – Random Access memory).
The main difference between these two is that it maintains permanent storage datas even in case of power failure, it can retain it until you intentionally delete it, while the temporary memory datas will be lost immediately. When power failure occurs and it is automatically managed by the computer’s CPU. Most computer applications use temporary memory to run processes. Once the process is complete, then it is used to run other new processes. It is mainly used to store temporary files.
When we group bits together, it is given a name in the computer industry. Most of the time computers use number of bytes to measure in the computers memory which is primary storage.
Computer memory is divided into a number of datas containers called memory cells.
All cells can store only a specific amount of datas called a word (eg 8 bits of datas).
All cells have an associated location identifier called an address.
The data that is processed is coded in binary (base-2 number) form for which many different types of encoding schemes are used, let’s discuss them further.
You may also like to know:- Computer Shortcut Keys
To begin with, digits are 0 and 1 binary digits and each is called a bit in short.
At the same time, 0 represents OFF state and 1 represents ON state.
If n bits are in a cell, and there are 2n (called “2 to the power or n”) ways in which zeros and ones are arranged, for example 2 binary digits (either 1 or 0), all of them are arranged. (22 or 2 × 2 or 4) can be possibilities which are -00, 01, 10 and 11.
To determine the capacity of a computer’s memory, their two aspects are taken into account, the first is how many number of bits are per cell and the number of cells in which memory is partitioned, for example, computer memory depends. Is how many bits are stored in each cell and how many cells are available.
According to the computer industry, sequence of 8-bits (also called byte) is the basic unit of memory.

Types of datas:-

Talking about programming, then we can say that data type is a classification that specifies which type of value is near a variable and which type of mathematical, relational or logical operations will be applied to them. Which will not cause any error. For example, a string is a data type that is used to classify text, while an integer is a data type that is used to classify whole numbers.
Numerical datas:-
Such datas contain numbers up to 0-9 i.e. Decimal Numbers. Especially this numerical datas are used in computer. In Excel sheet we use numerical data at the same time as datas.
Alphabetic datas:-
Any kind of alphabet whether it is Hindi (A, B, C) or English (A, B, C) are all under this alphabetic datas.
Alpha numeric datas:-
Just like it sounds, these types of signs like @, #, $ etc. come in the datas.
Audio datas:-
These datas contain all types of songs, recordings etc. which are used in audio format like MP3, WAV, format.
Video datas:-
This type of datas contains all types of videos and they are used in video format such as MP4, MKV etc. format.
Graphical Datas:-
Images, pictures, graphical datas etc. are used in JPG, PNG format under such datas.
What is Data Processing?
Data processing is a process in which raw datas are converted into meaningful information through a process. The data is manipulated so that it can produce results and by which a problem can be resolved or the situation of a mega problem can be improved.

Basic Stages of Data Processing:-

The basic stages mainly consist of three steps of the data processing cycle.
  1. Input:- In this step, the input datas are prepared in a convenient form for processing. It depends on the form processing machine. For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data is stored in a single medium such as magnetic disks, tapes, or anything else.
  2. Processing:- In this step, the input data is converted into produce data which is a more useful form. For example, sales orders are viewed to calculate the summary of sales in a company.
  3. Output:- In this step, the result of the previous processing step is collected. Any particular form of output data depends on how those datas are used. For example, the output data can also contain pay-checks of any employees.
Let us now understand the basic stages of data processing in details.
1. Input
In this input process, the datas are collected and stored somewhere. Store means that somewhere it is collected, whether you can store it in computer or you can also write in paper. Understand the second process of input.
  • Collection:- We need to collect datas before inputting it. Datas are collected from different sources, such as to know how many schools are there in a city, all schools have to go. The fact is collected. How many students have more than 50% marks in a class. There is a need to collect the mark sheet of every student to know this information.
  • Verification:- Now the next step is Verification, where it is confirmed that the data taken for input is true or false. Like when the result is first verified before doing PUBLISH. You too do verify once before giving a report to anyone.
  • Coding:- Coding the datas is done in this step, it means that it is converted into machine form i.e. to convert to Computer Readable Form. Which computer can easily process Input datas.
  • Storing:- Now the data entered in the excel or word of the computer. That data is stored in the computer. For this, a storage device is used. When the data is stored in the computer, only the next step is sent for processing.
2. Processing
This is the step where the process of creating information starts. Here all these given below techniques are used, such as classification, sorting, calculation, summarizing.
  • Classification:- In this process, datas are classified into groups and subgroups. Which will make it easier to understand the data properly. For example, if we classify the students’ data in college, then the datas of science category will be separated, the data of commerce category will be separated and the data of arts category will be kept separately, which makes datas analysis easy.
  • Sorting:- Here the datas are arranged in an organized order. Which will make it easier for us to access the datas. Sorting Order Anything can be Ascending or Descending. It depends on the user how he wants to sort the datas. For example, roll number in class is placed in Alphabetical Order. Marks from Highest mark to lowest mark.
  • Calculation:- An arithmetic operation is performed over the data given in the Calculation Process. Like those operations can be any of these sum, average, percentage. Ex-how much are the average marks of students in a class, the ratio of male and female, all of these are covered in the calculation steps. Through this, we get a properly summarized information.
  • Summarising:- After performing all the operations given above the input datas, a summarized report is produced. No information is ever given to the management in a company, it is just sent to Sharans. This is because they do not have time for everything and it also saves time. Like doctors, after doing many tests, give a report that this man has this disease. Report card is also a summary of exam result. Perhaps you have understood how data is sent for processing and how it happens.
3. Output
When all the steps of processing are finished, then the output result is obtained, which can be called information. The only purpose of the processing step is to get the best result and give it to the user. Most of the time, the output information is stored in a storage device. Such as hard disk, pen drive, CD, DVD.
Output (activities on Output Result)
  • Retrieval:- In the future, the output result can be retrieved from Storage Media whenever you want. For example, whenever you want the result of a student’s 7 semester exam, anyone can see the marks of the semester. This process is called Retrieval.
  • Conversion:- Output result can be changed in different form. You may have seen that the output result obtained after processing the datas can be seen in any of these forms, such as Output Information – Graph, Flowchart, Chart, Table, Diagram, Report. GRAPH of Population of India, Population growth chart, College time table are all examples of Output result.
  • Communication:- Whatever output is generated after processing the datas, it is an information. Which is very important to share, such as to make the information easily available to everyone in news paper. If we talk about the college time table that is printed on the Peon Notice Board. By which all students get this information, this is called communication. The process of sharing the output result is called communication. (Nowadays since the camera has come, sharing is happening as soon as photos are put in the wahtsapp group like time table photo, result, notice)
What are the methods of data processing?
Whatever data is best in the whole world, it does not work unless it is processed properly. Data processing is the process in which raw data is converted into usable information by using some methods. Yes, paper and pencil can be used for this work, but since we are in the 21st century and there is no shortage of datas here, it means that the quantity of data is very high and in this way we have to use new innovation technology such as computer Can be used. To process the data used by the computer, they are first collected, checked for accuracy and only then they are entered into the computer. So let’s know about some such data processing methods.
Batch Processing
Batch processing is a very grunt work, it is the simplest form of data processing. This is more useful when an organization has large volumes of data and can be clumped (in one place) into one or two categories. For example, in a store where transactions can be categorized in one place with the help of batch-process. If no information is changed then batch processing is very fast.
Real-Time Processing
Some batch-processing is not so fast. Real-time processing methods handle data when they require instant turn-around time. For example, if a passenger buys an airline ticket and cancels it, then the airline has to update its records instantly. Records are instantly updated by this process. Where batch processing involves processing a lot of data in a specified time, real-time processing is a continuous process.
Data mining
In data mining, data is taken from multiple sources and pools and combine them and look for correlations. For example, a grocery chain has to analyze the purchase of the customer and it has to be found that the customers who buy the grains, often after that they buy bananas. Then this chain can increase sales by using this information, so to increase sales, having such joint purchases can prove to be very good for their sales.
Statistical processing
Heavy number-crunching occurs in statistical processing. A company that knows that they are a little more busy on a day of the week. This happens because many customers give their requests at the last moment, so such problems often occur. The company can deal with such a problem because the cause is known. With the help of statistics, it is easy to compare data, whether it is companies of different sizes or different cities.
I hope that I have given you complete information about what is data and I hope that you guys have understood about what data is. If you have any doubts about this article or you want that there should be some improvement in it, then for this you can write down comments. With these ideas, you will get a chance to learn something and improve something. If you liked this post data of mine or you have got something to learn from it, then please share this post on social networks such as Facebook, Twitter etc. to show your happiness and excitement.

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